The Rosaceae are a familyofdicotyledonous plantsthat includes 100 - 120 genera and more than3,000 speciesoftrees, shrubs, semi-shrubs,as well as herbaceous plants.The leavesare alternate or opposing, simple or complex, most have stipules. The flowersare usually bisexual, solitary or gathered in inflorescences, regular, with a double and more rarely a simple perianth. It is composed of 5 free petals and 5 free or accreted sepals. The calyxis rarely double. The seed-vessels are many or one. The flower bottom is protruded, flat or concave. The stamens are numerous or just 5-10. The ovary is superior, semi-inferior or inferior.The flowering parts are arranged most often in a circle, yet they can also be seed-vessels arranged spirally. The floweringare arranged most often in a circle,but there are also such with spirally arranged seed-vessels.The fruits are Плодовете са assembled pouches, drupes and nuts or juicy simple drupes. Other species, for example, these in the Apple genus (Malus Tourn.ex L.), form pseudo apple-shaped fruit. The fruits formed from a hypanthia (widened flower bottom accreted with the perianth andstamens), are called false fruit (for example berries).
The Rosaceae familyis spread globally, yet most predominantly in the temperate zone in the Northern Hemisphere. InBulgaria grow more than 200 species, among which are the protected: the Rhodope barefoot (Geum rhodopeum Stoj. & Stef.),the tormentil (Potentilla fruticosa Pursh.), the willow ulmaria (Spiraea salicifolia L.).
The Rosaceaefamily is probably the third in economic significance after the Poaceaeand Fabaceaefamilies.The fruits of many of the Rosaceaeplants are rich in sugars and vitamins. The members of the familyare valuable fruit crops (Apple – Malus L., Pear – Pyrus L., Apricot - Prunus armeniaca L., Peach- Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, Cherry – Cerasus L., Plum - Prunus domestica L., Raspberry - Rubus idaeus Vell. and etc.). Some of them contain essential oils (the oil-bearing roses - Gallicanae) with high qualities, while others are ornamental, medicinal, honey-bearing and wild species.